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Photo of the third week of September 2012

Portraits of spiders



Battle of spiders - © Norbert Pousseur

... the image returned, for a striking confrontation between spiders ...       Photographie Norbert Pousseur

Previous series : Figs in Provence Other photos below
To the presentation of photographs weekly
Other photos below Following series : Drinking glasses

Vallorcine - 1994 - Neg 6x6 - n120a94p013v07 - series Photo of the week


September in the Alps - this is the season where we encounter many spiders in their webs or in the grass after a good summer to hearty foods.

Therefore favorable times to photograph.

The photo above was returned, as well as its sequel a little below,
the attitude of these spider fighting is most characteristic in this form.

In the middle picture, zoomable, restored reality, more detailed image, but with the use of a flash,
eliminating any play of light, that I do not like.


This short series completes that on spiders, published in the same collection under the title ' Cobwebs in the drops of mists '
And an other one on a spider weaving its cobweb.

I completed this brief overview of our companions in our fields and our homes with items encyclopaedic dictionary Vorepierre 1867,
for the terms: Arachnid, Arachnoid, Spider, Spider Branch (aranéide)

Photography of the week 38 of 2012

General presentation   The same in french : Portraits d'araignées



Hand-to-hand fight of spiders - © Norbert Pousseur

... spiders head at the top, some of the fighters ...       Photographie Norbert Pousseur

Vallorcine - 1994 - Neg 6x6 - n120a94p013v08 - series Photo of the week


Spider lying in wait - © Norbert Pousseur

... watching at the bottom of a fold of leaf, for disturbing spider ...       Photographie Norbert Pousseur

Vallorcine - 1990 - Neg 6x6 - n120a90p094v09 - series Photo of the week


Spider on its cobweb - © Norbert Pousseur

... such an insect which approaches a cobweb in the morning dew ...      Photographie Norbert Pousseur

Vallorcine - 1995 - Neg 6x6 - n120a95p019v11 - series Photo of the week


Garden spider on its cobweb - © Norbert Pousseur

... to be watched by such a garden spider is by reassuring...      Photographie Norbert Pousseur

Vallorcine - 1994 - Neg 6x6 - n120a94p033v03 - series Photo of the week


Spider tetragnathe - © Norbert Pousseur

... spider 'tetragnathe' on its cobweb...      Photographie Norbert Pousseur

Vallorcine - 1994 - Neg 6x6 - n120a94p033v01 - series Photo of the week


Water striders - © Norbert Pousseur

...'spide'r in the feast, called popularly 'water striders' ...      Photographie Norbert Pousseur

Vallorcine - 1990 - Neg 6x6 - n120a90p129v10 - series Photo of the week


Spider with big legs - © Norbert Pousseur

... lighting effect for a spider on its cobweb ...      Photographie Norbert Pousseur

Vallorcine - 1998 - Neg 6x6 - n120a98p096v05 - series Photo of the week




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Articles on the spiders of Dupiney de Vorepierre's encyclopaedic dictionary, publishing of 1867

ARACHNIDS, (Gr. apaxun, spider). T. Zool.
Enc. - The spider are in the method of Cuvier, the second class of the phylum Pets articulated. This class, which was established and named by Lamarck, is clearly distinguished from insects and crustaceans. - In spider head is confused with the thorax, and the combination of these two parties has received the name of Cephalothorax. The posterior part of the body is sometimes a globular mass and undivided, as in spiders, sometimes in a series of distinct rings, as in the Scorpions. These animals are wingless, but they are fitted with 4 pairs of legs attached to the thorax, and terminated by two hooks in general. They do not feel real metamorphosis, but simply moved. Their body is usually a soft, especially the abdomen, and little hairy own to protect. - Mouth of the spider consists of two hinged parts mandibles or form small greenhouses with hooks and mobile with a pair of jaws each supporting a lamellar palp several articles; with a tab located below the mandibles and fixed between the jaws, and a bottom lip formed by an extension of the sternum. Mandibles of the spider move in the opposite direction from those of insects, c. to d. high was low: Latreille looked like similar antennas and therefore he was named Chelicerae or Antennas-clamps. In the spider parasites whose mouth is shaped siphon sucker for it, these organs are replaced by two sharp blades.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur
Fig. 1. Mouth of the Spider domesticates seen down,
a, a, mandibles; b, b, jaws; d, lip sternale; c, c, first article of feel(get); d, plastron.
Fig. 2. Head seen by profile. Mandible ended with the hook;
c, jaw; d, feel; e, lip.
According to the drawings of professor Dugès, in Cuvier, ' Animal kingdom.

— In the most perfect species, the digestive tract is usually fairly simple form: the thoracic part stomach is sometimes presents several appendices cœcaux and its abdominal part has two bulges which first received the name of the duodenum, and the second the large intestine. There are at most spider, biliary vessels similar to those of insects, but in the Scorpions, there are glands liver cluster. The largest number of spider have a nervous system consists of a central node mass located at the middle part of the thorax, which emits four branches on each side for the legs, which has advanced two other nodes from which the optic nerves and mandibular, and finally giving rise back to two cords together soon to form a bulge where the threads come traveling to various organs in the abdomen. In Scorpions (see: the word), the organization of the nervous system is greater than that which exists in animals dens class we are talking about.
Breathing a year now link through tracheae, as in insects, sometimes year through lungs, but the organs that name are simply small pockets composed of a multitude of blades membranous, united and reconciled to the way they came the leaves of a book (Fig. 3). These are housed in the lungs and the abdomen receive air through transverse openings located on the underside of the body and called Stigmas (Pneumostomes Latreille) last case is the number of 2, 4 or even 8. Some spider, although equipped with lungs, trachea and also have both forms together and breathing apparatus. - The circulatory system is essentially a heart located on the back, in the shape of a large vessel lying that receives vessels from the lungs and gives rise to arteries for various body parts. (Fig. 4. a, an extension that goes into the cephalothorax b, anterior lung vessels c, posterior lung vessels.) In species that breathe through tracheae, it seems to have only a single vessel unbranched, similar to the dorsal vessel of insects. - We know little of the sense organs in these animals. Touch obviously exerted by the end of the legs and especially through the maxillary palps, but although spider appear to possess the faculty of hearing, anatomy not found for this device special function. As their eyes, their organization is extremely simple. They are very numerous, usually 8 in number, and are arranged in ways quite diverse and, accordingly, we took into account the number and arrangement of these bodies to establish equality in Celtic class of animals .

Most former observers had thought, in males, the reproductive organs are located at the end of the palps, but it appears that these parties are only excitatory organs. The spider are oviparous. Many wrap their eggs in a silken cocoon. In some species, the female remains with her offspring to ensure its preservation, sometimes it constantly carries with it its cocoon, or carries her young on her back, when they are too weak to walk. - We said that spider did not feel that just moved: however, in some species, the last two legs do not grow at a more or less advanced age, and appear only when a skin change. It was only after the fourth or fifth moult more than the animals of this class become capable of reproduction.
In general, spider eat insects, they capture alive, but several species attach themselves to the bodies of animals and of man himself. They simply suck fluids from their prey or animal on which they are parasitic. Some, however, are only found in the flour, the cheese and even various plants.
Cuvier and Latreille divided the class into two orders spider, spider the lung and tracheal spider. The first bags have a heart and lung vessels with distinct. They generally 6 to 8 small eyes smooth, but in some there are 10 to 12. The second pouches are devoid of lung and breathe only with tracheae which communicate with the outside air by two very small scars located on the underside of the abdomen. The number of smooth eye varies from 2 to 4, even some species are quite lacking. - Each of these orders was itself subdivided: thus spider lung are two families, the spider or spinners and the Spiders from Pedipalps, and the order of spider tracheal three families, pseudo-scorpions false scorpions, and Pycnogonida Holètres. See these words.

Arachnoid, (Gr. apaxun, cobweb, eidos, likeness).
Enc. - Anatomists call and, because of its thinness, one of the membranes that envelop the brain and it gives the name of the Arachnoiditis inflammation of this membrane. Voy. Brain and Meninge. - In Zoology and Botany, the term spider strives adjective to describe parts that offer some analogy is with the shape of spiders or webs qu'ourdissent with these animals.

SPIDER, (Lat. aranea). Such animals articulated body, wingless, remarkable for their eight legs slender and elongated, and the cobweb they produce. spider cellar. spider that file. Canvas spider Wire spider - For ellipse Remove spiders from the ceiling, remove the webs in spider. | | Fig. and fam., This woman has legs spider, She has long fingers and skinny.
Enc. - Spiders are arachnids second section spinners or Spiders. They have only one pair of lungs and stigma, hence the name Spiders dipneumones they received. Furthermore, all have palps five items inserted on the outer side of the jaws, and a tongue advanced between the jaws, sometimes almost square, sometimes triangular or semicircular. Chains are Gen. six in number. - The section of Spiders form two main tribes, divided themselves into sub-groups. The first of these tribes includes sedentary spiders that build webs, or at least throw cobweb to surprise their prey, and are usually held in the traps or with. In the second, it arranges the species that are not canvas, but go hunting insects, and retire into holes or cavities that lining their cobweb : they are wandering spiders. Finally, should, with Walckenaer, place quite apart from Argyronète, which is the only species of spider aquatic
Sedentary spiders. - These spiders have eyes closer to the frontage: these organs are the number of 6 or 8, in the latter case, there are 4 or 2 in the middle and on each side of S Sou. Latreille distinguishes Rectigrades Latérigrades and, following that, in their work, they are always forward, and they can be claimed not only forward but also back and sides. The hatched Rectigrades cobwebs and still stationnantes; their feet are high in the rest. Their eyes do not form, by their general disposition, a segment of a circle or a crescent. - The Rectigrades are further divided into 'Tubitèles' or 'Tapestry-makers' in 'Inéquitèles' or spinners, and 'Orbitèles' or tensioning.
The Tubitèles Tapissières have chains or cylindrical, closely spaced in a directed beam back. They spin webs white tightly woven, they put in slots, holes in walls, under stones, between the branches and leaves of plants: their legs are sturdy. They include the genera Clotho, Drasse, Segestria, and spider Clubione itself. - The Clothos have 8 eyes, their two upper courses are a bit longer than the others, and their mandibles are inclined lip whose shape is triangular.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

SPIDER, (Lat. aranea). Such animals articulated body, lacking aileLe type of genre is the Clotho of Durand (Fig. l), which is located in France around Narbonne and the Pyrenees. The Clotho, according to the observations of L. Dufour, establishes the lower surface of large stones or in rock crevices, a pavilion (Fig. 2) whose contour has seven or eight notches set by their angles on the stone, using wire bundles, while the edges remain free. These recesses are formed of several layers of fabric which are bonded together, and between these layers. The spider household some secret passages by which alone it can enter its flag, which remains impenetrable to any other insect. Outside the tent, remarkable texture, like a taffeta extreme delicacy, whose thickness increases with the age of the worker, because at each moult, it adds to the canvas a number of liners. Finally, during the breeding season having come to the IC., She weaves an apartment even napped and soft pines, where it will include the bag of eggs and chicks that will hatch. It was in the first days of January or in the last December's place egg laying. To preserve this precious deposit against the rigors of the season, Clotho envelope down and applied to the stone out of his tent. When the young are hatched, she lavished her their care, but as soon as they can without their mother, they give up and go away with her special set their flags. The mother remained alone in his tent, which serves as the grave. - The Drasses have 8 eyes arranged in two groups of four lines. The jaws form a hanger around the lip, which is elongated and nearly oval. Or in the environs of Paris Dr. shiny, very small species, almost cylindrical, with the thorax tawny, covered with a silky down and purple: the abdomen, mixed blue, red, green Clotho has two transverse lines a golden yellow, which is the previous arc. Sometimes we see four golden. The Drasses held under rocks, in cracks of walls, inside the leaves, and there produce cells of a tissue whose whiteness is dazzling. Cocoons are some orbicular flat and composed of two valves mounted one over the other. - The 'Ségestries' 6 eyes were almost equal, and possess both lungs and tracheae. Degeer and Lister recognized that these spiders are nocturnal. They build tubes elongated, very narrow, cylindrical, where they lie in ambush, the first pair of legs directed forward and put on as many diverging cobweb, but all lead to the tube as a common center. As soon as a fly is bothering these nets, the movements it is clear to undermine the cobweb on which rested the legs of the spider In this way, it recognizes which side is the victim, and it melts over to devour. Often found in the homes of Paris one species of this genus, the 'Ségestries' treacherous (Fig. 3), which is 15 millimeter long., and a hairy body, a dark greyish mouse mandibles with green and black spots along the back and abdomen. - Spiders actual or Tégénaires of Walckenaer have both channels significantly longer than the other, and their previous four eyes arranged in a curved line (Fig. 5). They build the corners of the walls in the interior of our homes, on plants, in bays, and often on roadsides, in the ground or under stones, a large canvas almost horizontal to the party top of which is a tube where they remain motionless. There they remain for weeks, their eyes turned to canvas, waiting patiently for an insect comes to be embarrassed. Hardly had he touched the cobweb, spider rushed upon him

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

it is small, it removes on-field and won in his house, but when the size of it allows the fight against the enemy, she pulls a thread of its branches, and the leader with its hind legs of the insect struggles, it embraces all sides, and manages to make his movements helpless: then she sucks at ease. If it seems too strong for her, we see immediately break itself the cobweb of his canvas to give him freedom. The spider domestic (Fig. 4) is the most common species in our homes it is blackish, with two rows of dark spots which are larger earlier: his abdomen is oval. - The Clublones (Fig. 6) (Clotho nurse) differ mainly spiders themselves, in that the line formed by the previous four eyes is straight or almost straight. It is under rocks, in cracks in walls or between the sheets, they construct silken tubes that serve as their home.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

'Inequitèles' spiders or spinners have branches almost conical projection with little convergent and arranged in a rosette. Their feet are slender and their jaws are inclined lip. Their abdomen is bigger, softer and more colorful than in the preceding genera. Finally, their cobwebs represent an irregular network, and are composed of intersecting cobweb in every sense on many levels.
- Latreille within this group Scytode genres, épislne, Theridion and Pholque. - The Scytodes only have 6 eyes, which are arranged in pairs. The thoracic Scytode (Fig. 7) has a length of 6 millimeter. Half about her body is a beautiful yellow with black spots, and the cephalothorax has two black lines on top. This species is found in our houses: Next Walckenaer, it carries its cocoon in its mandibles.
- The Episines have 8 eyes close together on a common elevation, and the corselet narrow, almost cylindrical. - The Théridions also have 8 eyes, 4 in the middle square, whose two previous placed on a small hill, and two on each side, located also on a common elevation. The carapace is heart-shaped or reversed almost triangular. The Ther. beneficial (Fig. 8) was so named by Walckenaer, because it establishes between the grapes and the guarantees of the attack of many insects. The Ther. malmignatte, found in Tuscany and the island of Corsica, is considered very poisonous: his body is black, with thirteen small red spots on the abdomen of fire. - 8 The eyes are located on a Pholques tuber and divided into three groups, one on each side, consisting of three eyes arranged in a triangle, and the third medium, consisting of 2 eyes placed on a transverse line. Ph. Phalangist or house spider with long legs (Fig. 9) has the body long, narrow, and of a yellow color, almost pale, the abdomen is roughly cylindrical, very soft, and marked above blackish spots. It is common in our homes, where he built a sort of network of floating and cobweb very spaced and stretched over several levels. Celtic Spider agglutinate eggs in a round mass no tissue cover, and thus carries between its mandibles.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

The group of spiders or orbital tensioning includes genres Linyphie, Ulobore, and Tetragnathe Epeira. This group differs from the previous by the jaws, which are straight and substantially wider at the tip. The eyes are arranged as follows: 4 in the middle, forming a quadrilateral, and two on each side. Their abdomen, large and soft, is colored quite varied. The Orbitèles make webs in the regular network, composed of concentric circles crossed by rays rights, going from the center to the circumference. Some are built on the edge of their fabric, which is sometimes horizontal, sometimes perpendicular, a cavity or small box where they stand hidden. Their eggs are agglutinated, very numerous and voluminous enclosed in a cocoon. The cobweb that support the web of these spiders can lie about a fifth: astronomers use them to build micrometers they place in the interior of telescopes. - The Linyphies (Fig. 10. Lin. Montane) have square jaws, straight, almost the same width. Their eyes are thus arranged: 4 in the middle, forming a trapezium with the rear side is the widest, and the other four in pairs, one on each side and in an oblique direction. They build on the bushes, gorse, pines, etc.., A horizontal canvas, thin, little tight, and tend over on several points and in an irregular manner, the cobweb perpendicular or oblique to fix it surrounding areas. The animal is at the bottom of the canvas and in a reverse situation.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

- The four eyes Ulobores have the post placed at equal intervals on a straight line, and the two side of the first row closest to the front edge of the carapace as 2 between them. The body is elongated and almost cylindrical. Once a fly or other insect entangled in nets set this spider, swaddled in an instant and then sucks at ease. The spider Walckenaer (fig. 11) is 11 millimeter long. about a blackish yellow, and covered with a silky down. It is found in the vicinity of Bordeaux bots and several departments of the south. - The eyes are located Tétragnathes four by four in two lines almost parallel, and separated by almost equal intervals. The vast tétragnathe (Fig. 12) constructed on a web bushes vertical, regular network, the center of which it is held. Degeer found young spiders of this species adhering to many of these cobweb of silk that can be seen in the beautiful autumn days, hovering in the air, and he observed that the same lengthened. - The Spiders have the two eyes of each side and close by pairs almost contiguous, and the other four in the middle form a quadrilateral. Their jaws expand from their base, and rounded up a pallet. The species of this genus build a vertical or inclined canvas: some are placed in the center, the body reversed or upside down, the others are all from a home, sometimes in the form of a tube, silky sometimes leaves together and made linked by cobweb, now open at the top and imitating a nest flies. Their cocoon is usually globular or ovoid.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

The spider Hoopoe (Fig. 13. Bitch 14. Male) is very common in the south of France, where she stood on the edge of streams. The cephalothorax is covered with a silky down and flattened his abdomen is a beautiful yellow, interspersed with intervals of transverse lines, black or blackish brown. Cocoon worth mentioning: it is about 27 millimeter long., And form a small ball of gray, with black longitudinal stripes: one end is truncated and closed by a cover plate and silky. The spider in scars and does not work for food during the night or when the light is low. The spider cone is used to suspend a thread that has sucked the insect. Lépeire cucurbitine spider is the only of its kind that spins a horizontal canvas. Other native species are garden spider, the spider. scalar, the silky spider and spider brown. Among the exotic, there are some very remarkable: some have the abdomen covered with a very firm skin, with spikes or thorns corneas, while others bristle bundles feet; lépeire curvicaude of Java abdomen enlarged posteriorly and terminated by two long spines arched. The canvas of some alien species is composed of strong cobweb if she stops birds, and said, embarrassed even the man who is committed to you. Finally, the natives of New Holland, and some islands of the South Seas eat in the absence of other food, a kind of Epeire called Epeire plumipède. - Spiders that are part of the tribe read Latérigrades generally have small mandibles and jaws angled on the lip. The body is usually flattened, shaped crab, with the abdomen long, rounded or triangular. Their eyes are always 8 in number and form, by their union, a segment of a circle or a crescent. These spiders are quiet, feet extended on plants. They do point canvas and simply throw a few solitary cobweb to stop their prey. They hide their cocoons between leaves it connects the edges, and guard him areca care until hatching young. Among the genres that make up the tribe, we will mention the Micrommates the Philodromes and Thomises. - The Micrommates are straight and parallel jaws: their eight eyes are arranged in two groups of four lines which cross the back is longer and curved back. The emerald Micromate (Fig. 15), which is a green gramen with sides edged with pale yellow, and the abdomen surrounded by a greenish-yellow, cut out the middle of the back with a green line, is common in the woods near Paris. It also meets the Mic. argélasienne. - The Philodromes Thomises and are equipped with eight eyes almost equal to each other, occupying the front of the carapace, and placed on two lines growing, but the first legs are almost equal, while those of the latter are very unequal . Several species belonging to these two genera inhabit France. We will simply cite Philodrome rhombifère (Fig. 16), the so-called black rhombus or trapezoid he presents to the anterior spine, and lemon Thomisus (Fig. 17). This is only 4 millimeter long. 1/2.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

Wandering spiders. - This tribe is composed of species that have large cephalothorax and legs strong. Their distinctiveness lies in the arrangement of their eyes, which extend at least as much back and forth and transversely. Latreille has divided the tribe into two groups: Citigrades and Saitigrades. - The Citigrades, also called wolf spiders have the cephalothorax oval and narrowed in front. Their legs are only fit to race. In general, females stand on the cocoon which contains their eggs, and bring with them: it is only in the last extremity they abandon it, but the danger is over, they return immediately to ensure its safety . Among the genera of this group, we will mention only those containing native species. The eyes have Lycosae arranged in three transverse lines, the first consisting of 4, and the other two of two. These spiders run very quickly inhabit almost all the ground, and there engaged in general holes which serve as homes. Others settled in the cracks of walls, cavities stones, etc..: Some are pipe consists of a fine mesh, along about 5 centimeters., And covered outside plots earth. All stand near their homes and there await their prey, on which they rushed with surprising speed. Among the species that make up this genre, the most famous, without a doubt, is the Lyc. tarantula. It is very common around Taranto, Italy, and this is where it got its name.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

Tarantula Narbonne (Fig. 18) is much smaller than that of Italy. The venom of this spider species has been the subject of countless fables. Thus, it was long believed that its bite produces a disease called tarantism, which could not only heal through music. Some authors have even suggested the air and noted deemed most likely to operate tarentolati healing, that is to say patients tarantism. It is a known fact today that the vulgar Celtic spider venom is only dangerous to insects it preys. Its history therefore offers more interest in this respect, but in that of morals, it deserves to be studied. Tarantula thrives in dry places and exposed to the sun, and it takes place in underground conduits perfectly cylindrical, it digs into the soil to a depth of about 35 centimeters. These kinds of hutches initially a vertical direction, and then are bent to one third of their length, and then resume their original direction. This is the origin of this bend is the Tarantula position to spy ambush its prey and jump on it. The external orifice of the burrow is sometimes completed by a pipe that the spider built with small pieces of dry wood artistically arranged one above the other, and united by a little clay. This tube, lining it and inside his terrier, silky cobweb puts his reduced immune to flooding and debris that could fall into the hole and clog, He serves addition ambush, providing flies and other insects on which it feeds a highlight for landing. - The Corsair Lycosa is on the edge of stagnant water to the surface where it runs without getting wet, in pursuit of its prey. - Dolomedes The eyes are arranged in three transverse lines representing a rectangle a little wider than long, with two posterior located on a hill. The female Dolomède admirable (Fig. 19) is built on top of trees laden with leaves or in the bushes, a silky nest funnel-shaped or bell, and it made her lay: when she goes hunting or is forced to flee, it carries with it its cocoon attached to the chest. - The Oxyopes have eight eyes arranged two by two in four transverse lines. The Oxyope. Grebe (Fig. 20) about 9 millim. length: his body is gray, mixed with black and red, with the legs of a pale brown, mottled with black. We found this species around Brives (Corrèze).

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

Spiders that constitute the group of Saltigrades are remarkable for the size of their thighs and their feet prior admirably arranged for jumping and racing and they walk jerkily, while short stop after a few steps, and shrug the forefeet. When they find an insect, a fly, a cousin importantly, they are approaching slowly, a distance that they can pass a single bound, and rushed suddenly upon their victim. Several Saltigrades built between leaves, under stones, etc.., Nests silk bags oval shaped and open at both ends, where they retire to rest, moult and to ensure weather seasons. This group includes both genders and Atte Erese or Saltique, some species live in France. We mention only Erese cinnabar (Fig. 21) and experienced Saltique (Fig. 22, double size). The first is remarkable in that its carapace and legs are entirely black, and that his abdomen is a beautiful cinnabar red, with four black spots on the upper part. The second is about 8 millimeter long. His body is black, with the abdomen oval, elongated, with three white stripes semicircular.
The genus contains only Argyronète still only hope the Argyronète water (Fig. 23). His eyes are numbered 8, 2 on each side, very close to each other and placed on a height: the intermediate 4 form a quadrangle. It is a dark brownish gray and covered with hair long enough. Although intended to breathe atmospheric air, this spider lives in the backwaters, and chose the places where aquatic plants grow in large numbers. When Argyronète comes to the surface of the water, which are countless hair imprison his body a multitude of small air bubbles, so that when she dives she is always surrounded by breathable air. It usually swims backwards, down the cephalothorax and abdomen above, and the air surrounding it makes it seem as bright as quicksilver. The Argyronète builds in the water a silky body that she keeps in a suitable position by cobweb attached to surrounding plants. This bell, which is the size of a walnut and great regularity, provides only very narrow opening that serves as input. When the home is partially completed, the animal comes to the surface of the water, raising her abdomen from the liquid, fold their legs and rushes back into the water, taking countless small air bubbles. Came under his bell, he gets rid of the bubbles, returns to the provision, and repeat this trick until it completely filled the hull will be his abode. He settled in the house, and this is where he ran down small animals engaged in tense cobweb around. When the air is vitiated by the bell her breathing, the Argyronète backwards and refilled. At the time of spawning, it makes a little cocoon silk with a very white and very fine, lays her eggs and fixed in his dressing room with some cobweb. A few days later, the little spiders hatch, and only are they escaped from the egg, they leave the home of their mother and build a special bell. Although this spider never leaves the water, it can still live some time out of the liquid, but it quickly withers and dies after a few days. This species is rare in the vicinity of Paris, but is found in various locations in France, including Champagne. It is more common in northern Europe, it occurs even in Lapland.

Spiders kind. (lat. aranea, spider). t. zool.
Enc. - In the method of Cuvier and Latreille, the term is synonymous of Arachnides spider spinners. The spider is the first family of Arachnids lung, and have the following characters : - Mandibles terminated by a hook, curved, hard and sharp, near the tip with a small hole for the release of venom with which the animal gives death to its victims; palps pédiformes without clip at the end, ended more than in females, with a small hook; jaws two in number, with cephalothorax usually print in a Y shape, which indicates the space occupied by the head eyes 6 in number and more often 8; abdomen and movable generally soft, which is suspended by a pedicle cephalothorax short, and which is provided, below the anus, 4 6 dies (Fig . 1. 6 dies and the anus of the House Spider), c. to d. April to June after fleshy nipples, cylindrical or conical, articulated, very close to each other and drilled their end of an infinity of small holes to give way to silky cobweb that secrete these animals feet composed of seven items , the first two are the hips, thigh third, fourth and fifth leg, and the last two the tarsus.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

The venom in spiders is secreted by a vesicle which is housed in the mandible or the cephalothorax and communicates a excretory duct hook at the end of which we have spoken. (Fig. 3. Hook mandibular gland with its venomous very swollen. Fig. 4. Extremity of the hook with the slot and port of the venom.) Latreille observed only Spider bite of a medium-sized destroyed our Housefly in the space of a few minutes. The bite of larger species, known in South America under the name Spider-crab is able to kill small animals vertebrates. It can even identify humans a fever, but not fatal, as was claimed.
Secreting organs consist of silk vesicles of various sizes surrounded by a slimy tissue and ending in a channel which is the last item to cannulas. The material contained in these vessels resembles a viscous gum, insoluble in water and in alcohol, fragile as glass, and offering flexibility when it is divided into very thin cobweb The silky substance flows through the microscopic openings nipples and a multitude of filaments form a tenuous prodigious are equal to the number of holes (the latter exceed the number of miles in some species), and in the combining all together at their output, are the cobweb for the construction of the fabric. The Spider's reeled off by the sheer weight of his body or with its polished. [Fig. 2. a, large vesicle of the organ that secretes silk there are five, b, small vesicles, small die carried on a portion of the skin at the base of the big. of the first section of it stripped of its hair, e, second article, also stripped, f, third article which was removed hairs and most of the small cannulas which we can see that the insertion. This figure, as well as those above, are taken from Duges in the new edition of the Animal Kingdom of Cuvier. ] At the end of the nipples, the cobweb of silk are sticky, and it takes a certain degree of drying to be used. But when the temperature is favorable, just a moment, as spiders use it as soon as they are released from their chains. - Lister stated that some spiders ejaculate and throw away their cobweb who, notwithstanding, remain attached to the body, but this has been deemed impossible. However Latreille cobweb saw some nipples out Thomises, head straight and form as mobile shelves when the animal moves. - Spiders use silk they secrete not only to weave their nets or form tubes that serve as their home, but also to build hulls intended to contain eggs. - The cobweb and the long silky white flakes you see fluttering in the spring and fall, after a foggy, and commonly called the cobweb of the Virgin, are not formed in the atmosphere, as we was believed for a long time: multiplied observations have shown that they are produced by spiders belonging mainly to the genera and Epeira Thomisus. These flakes are mostly made by the great cobweb who should serve as home to the rays of the canvas or by those who make up the chain. This cobweb, becoming heavier due to moisture, sag, get closer and eventually roll into platoons. Often we see them meet near the cobweb started by the animal and where he stands. 11 is also likely that many of these spiders have not yet sufficiently abundant supply of silk, merely to throw off simple cobweb: thus occur those seen in great abundance crossing the furrows of plowed land and reflecting sunlight. - We managed to make socks and gloves with silk secreted by some spiders, but these tests can not be mere curiosities.
Spiders have been divided into two sections, depending on the number of their lungs. The first is the Tétrapneumones c. To d. spiders contain four lungs, and the second that of Dipneumones which possess only two. Since these are often called by the name of spiders, we have treated this mol. It leaves us more to talk about here that Tétrapneumones.
Among these there are spiders the first Sickles. They have feet and mandibles robust, and these hooks are folded below. Palps are inserted at the upper end of the jaws, so they appear to be composed of six sections, the first office would jaw. Their eyes, the number 8, are Gen. discount on a hill, there is, on each side, forming a three inverted triangle, and the other two are arranged transversely in the middle of the foregoing. Mygales the channels are provided with 4 of which the two outer are very prominent, while the two middle and bottom are usually very short. It is this kind belong the largest spiders known. Some, in one state of rest and legs extended, occupy a circular area 19 to 21 percent. in diameter is known in America under the name Spider-crabs.
The Mygale avicularium (Fig. 5) and because it pretends to attack even small birds, a 36 to 54 mm. length. It is dark, very hairy, with the end of the palps, legs and hair reddish lower mouth. It is located in Martinique.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur

The Mason Mygale (Fig. 6. Female 7. Male) encountered in our southern departments, only 18 millim. length, but it is remarkable for its industry. This species usually sets his house mounds against dry, compact and exposed to the south. It burrows underground often up to 65 centimeters. depth and are very inflected. It lines the inside of the burrow with a silky fabric and closes the entry with a hinged door. This cover is made of several layers of cobweb cemented with clay, and offers available as its own weight is sufficient to close. (Fig. 8. Nest Mason Mygale). Mygale The sentry stands usually behind the door, and when fear of seeing his home invaded by an enemy, she bravely clings to the inside of the lid and curved penny of terrier and a resistance to prevent energetic opening. - The Mygale pioneer, who lives in Tuscany and Corsica, has similar habits. - The genus has Atype palps inserted into an expansion lower outer side of the jaw, and only five articles. The spider Sulzer (Fig. 9) is at home in many places, among others in the vicinity of Paris. This species is growing in steep terrain covered with grass and a cylindrical casing, along 19 to 21 centimeters., Where she spins a white silk tube having the same shape and the same size as the hose. The cocoon is attached with silk, and both ends at the back of this house. - The types érodion, Dysdère Filistate and offer nothing that should stop our attention.

Drawing schematic on the spider - reproduction © Norbert Pousseur


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